A number of new easy-fitting overcoat designs appeared during the 19th century, including the Raglan, Ulster and Chesterfield, tailored for travelling or outdoor activities.
Early models of the Chesterfield, the first civilian overcoat, contained several changes that remain characteristic for modern examples – understated cut, dark wool, short vent, centre back-seam, single-breasted fly front, side pockets and no cuffs. Above all, it dispensed with the previously obligatory waist seam and was meant to be worn loosely over another garment.
Cold is the absence of heat. When something is chilled, it means that its heat disappears. Heat loss happens when warm air from one surface circulates into the cooler areas surrounding it, a movement known as convection. As the heat is released, an insulating layer of warm air forms at the surface. Rapidly moving air (wind) disrupts the boundary and allows for cool air to replace the warm. The ‘wind-chill factor’ is the feeling of decreased temperature as a result of this flow of air. The purpose of a wind-proof garment is to help insulation by stopping moving air from breaking the body’s own heat layer, and thus preventing the warm air from disappearing. Wind-proofing is achieved either by a densely-woven fabric structure or, as in water-resistant outerwear, by sealing the inside of the fabric with an impenetrable membrane.
function Water repellent
Water-repellency is always added to fabrics that need to be water-proof
or water-resistant. It is achieved by treating the textile with a finish
that forces moisture to form small pearls of water on top of the fabric
surface instead of being absorbed by the fibres. The purpose is to
protect the material from getting wet-through and thereby prevent loss
of body heat, as well as to allow for breathability.
All ARKET water-repellent products are treated with finishes free of perfluorinated compounds, PFCs, a group of chemicals that have shown to be harmful for the environment and for aquatic organisms.
Note: Detergents and water-repelling agents are each other’s opposites. While the purpose of the water-repellent finish is to push water away from the fabric, detergents reduce the water’s surface tension to allow the fabric to absorb as much water as possible. It is thus important to get rid of all detergent residues from the garment to retain the full potential of the finish – wash at full rinse cycle, use only a small amount of mild detergent (or a specialty detergent) and avoid softeners. After wash, the water-repellent finish can be re-activated through heat, by tumble drying or ironing. Please follow the specific care instruction for each garment.